Settling California’s Borders

California Nevada mapCalifornia’s southern border was resolved by treaty in 1848 after the Mexican-American War, but until 1849 its northern limits stretched into Oregon Territory and its eastern boundary extended somewhat vaguely into present day Utah. That year the pre-statehood Constitutional Convention at Monterey set the Continue reading Settling California’s Borders

The Original Mexican Border

Franciscan missionariesDuring the three hundred-plus years Spain claimed ownership of California by right of conquest, Spain’s official religion took a part in setting the state’s first southern boundary. Imperial Spain’s Nueva Espana (New Spain) was far-flung: it included the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of what are now the southwestern Continue reading The Original Mexican Border

Mexico Acquires California

Mexican flagMexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821—in general (though the specifics were different) for much the same political and economic reasons our Thirteen Colonies declared their independence from England in 1776. The new Republic of Mexico acquired Spain’s former conquests extending from coastal Continue reading Mexico Acquires California

Flags Over California

CA flag

Many flags have flown over California soil. A few are: the Spanish Empire’s royal standard of Carlos V; the Mexican Republic’s banner of green, white and red vertical bars; the Flag of Argentina hoisted by revolutionary (some say pirate) Hippolyte de Bouchard for sixteen days in 1818; the flags of Russia and the Russian-American Company 1812-1841 at today’s Fort Ross; and the Bear Flag for three weeks in 1846 until it was supplanted by the Flag of the United States.  Sir Francis Drake planted the Flag of England at Drake’s Bay in 1579. It flew for 37 days.