Pioneer Women: Eliza Gregson

covered wagonAs a young teenager, English-born Eliza Marshall emigrated to the United States with her family, settling in Rhode Island. At nineteen she wed James Gregson, a blacksmith by trade. A year later the couple moved to Illinois, but Eliza wanted no part of working in the cotton mills, and feared her husband “wasn’t stout enough” for heavy blacksmith’s work. Indeed, James was often ill Continue reading Pioneer Women: Eliza Gregson

The Great Seal of California

Great Seal of CaliforniaThe Greek word “Eureka,” translated as “I have found it,” has appeared on the state seal since 1849, when California’s first Constitutional Convention convened in Monterey preparatory to anticipated U. S. statehood. In 1849, the immense population influx from around the globe to California’s gold fields was called the Golden Migration, because most of the immigrants came Continue reading The Great Seal of California

Waiting for Takeover

california relief mapSpain held California for 300 years; its successor Mexico ruled the province for another 25.  Neither spent much effort to develop its potential. Each was fearful of outside conquest, yet both lacked the resources to promote more than minimal colonization, or install adequate military defenses.  Not long after Mexico acquired Continue reading Waiting for Takeover