Settling California’s Borders

California Nevada mapCalifornia’s southern border was resolved by treaty in 1848 after the Mexican-American War, but until 1849 its northern limits stretched into Oregon Territory and its eastern boundary extended somewhat vaguely into present day Utah. That year the pre-statehood Constitutional Convention at Monterey set the Continue reading Settling California’s Borders

The Original Mexican Border

Franciscan missionariesDuring the three hundred-plus years Spain claimed ownership of California by right of conquest, Spain’s official religion took a part in setting the state’s first southern boundary. Imperial Spain’s Nueva Espana (New Spain) was far-flung: it included the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of what are now the southwestern Continue reading The Original Mexican Border

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

california relief mapThe Mexican-American War began in May, 1846, following a formal Declaration of War by the United States. The issue was the Texas Republic’s request for annexation to the United States, compounded by a dispute over international boundaries. Mexico had never recognized the Lone Star Republic’s independence from Mexican ownership ten years previously, and now vehemently insisted that the boundary was not the Rio Grande, but the Rio Nueces farther north. President James Polk very much wanted Texas for the Union, and California as well. Leaving nothing to chance, he sent naval warships into California waters. The war ended in Mexico City in September 1847, with the United States victorious. The formal treaty to end hostilities was signed February 2, 1848 at Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico—granting the future states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of New Mexico and Arizona, and the disputed Texan regions, to American sovereignty for a payment of $15 million dollars in gold and silver.

Pioneer Women: Scandalous Fashion

BloomersIn the early 1850s Amelia Jenks Bloomer introduced trousers to women, garnering much ridicule and limited acceptance. The design wasn’t hers. Amelia was an early campaigner for women’s rights and the temperance movement, founding a temperance newspaper named The Lily in 1849. In addition to temperance Continue reading Pioneer Women: Scandalous Fashion